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How to play Blackjack

In Blackjack at a casino, the dealer faces one to seven players from behind an arc-shaped table. Each player plays his hand independently against the dealer. At the beginning of each round, the player places a bet in the “betting box” and receives an initial hand of two cards. The object of the game is to get a higher card totaling than the dealer’s hand, but without going over 21, which is called “busting”,or “breaking”, or by many other terms.

Cards with a number 2 to 10 printed on them count as that value; the jack, queen, and king (also known as “face cards”) count as 10; the ace card can be either 1 or 11 according to the player’s choice. The player goes first and plays his hand by taking additional cards if he desires. If he goes over 21 points, he “busts” and automatically loses the hand and his bet. Then the dealer plays his or her hand. If the dealer busts, he loses to all remaining players who have cards whose values are equal to or below 21. If neither busts, the higher hand total wins. If a player ties with the dealer the hand is a “push” and the player’s bet is returned.[clarification needed] It is possible for the dealer to lose to some players but still beat other players in the same round.

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Example of a Blackjack game. The top half of the picture shows the beginning of the round, with bets placed and an initial two cards for each player. The bottom half shows the end of the round, with the associated losses or payoffs.Cards are dealt in three ways, either from one or two hand-held decks, from a box (known as a “shoe”) containing four to eight decks, or from a shuffling machine. When dealt by hand, the player’s two initial cards are usually face-down, while the dealer has one face-up card called the “upcard” and one face-down card called the “hole card.” (In European blackjack, the dealer’s hole card is not actually dealt until the players all play their hands.) When dealt from a shoe, all player cards are normally dealt face-up, with minor exceptions. It shouldn’t matter to the non-expert player whether his cards are dealt face-down or face-up since the dealer must play according to predetermined rules. If the dealer has less than 17, he must hit. If the dealer has 17 or more, he must stand (take no more cards), unless it is a “soft 17” (a hand that includes an ace valued as “11,” for example a hand consisting of Ace+6, or Ace+2+4). With a soft 17, the dealer follows the casino rules printed on the blackjack table, either to “hit soft 17” or to “stand on all 17’s.”

Normally, the highest possible hand is a “blackjack” or “natural,” meaning an initial two-card total of 21 (an ace and a ten-value card). A player who is dealt a blackjack is an automatic winner, unless the dealer also has blackjack, in which case the hand is a “push” (tie). When the dealer’s upcard is an ace, the player is allowed to make a side bet called “insurance,” supposedly to guard against the risk that the dealer has a blackjack (i.e., a ten-value card as his hole card). The insurance bet pays 2-to-1 if the dealer has a blackjack. Whenever the dealer has a blackjack, he wins against all players except those who also have a blackjack (a “push”).

The minimum and maximum bets are posted on the table. The payoff on most bets is 1:1, meaning that the player wins the same amount as he or she bets. The payoff for a player blackjack is 3:2, meaning that the casino pays $3 for each $2 originally bet.

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Player decisions
After receiving his initial two cards, the player has four standard options: he can “hit,” “stand,” “double down,” or “split a pair.” Each option requires the use of a hand signal. At some casinos or tables, the player may have a fifth option, called a “surrender.”

Hit: Take another card from the dealer.
signal: (handheld) Scrape cards against table. (face up) Touch finger to table or wave hand toward himself or herself.
Stand: Take no more cards; also known as “stand pat”, “stick”, or “stay”.
signal: (handheld) Slide cards under chips. (face up) Wave hand horizontally.
Double down: After receiving his first two cards and before any more are dealt to him, a player has the option to “double down.” This means the player is allowed to double his initial bet in exchange for receiving only one more card from the dealer. The hand played consists of his original two cards plus one more from the dealer. To do this he moves a second bet equal to the first into the betting box next to his original bet. (If desired and allowed by casino rules, the player is usually allowed to “double down for less,” placing an amount less than the original bet next to it in the betting box, although this is generally not a good idea as the player should only double in favorable situations but should then increase the bet as much as possible. Conversely, a player cannot double down for more than the value of the original bet.)
signal: Place additional chips next to (not on top of) the original bet.
Split a pair: If his first two cards are a “pair,” meaning two cards of the same value, the player can “split the pair.” To do this, he moves a second bet equal to the first into an area outside the betting box of the original bet. The dealer separates the cards to create two hands, placing one bet with each hand. The player then plays two separate hands.
signal: Place additional chips next to the original bet outside the betting box.
Surrender: Some casinos offer a fifth option called “surrender.” After the dealer has checked for blackjack, the player may “surrender” by giving up half his bet and not playing out the hand.
signal: There is no commonly accepted hand signal; it is just done verbally.
Hand signals are used to assist the “eye in the sky,” a person or video camera located above the table but concealed behind one-way glass. This tool is used to protect the casino against dealers or players who cheat. It may also be used to protect the casino against card counters, even though card counting is not illegal in the United States.

The player can take as many hits as he wants as long as the total in his hand is not above hard-20. However, if he busts, he loses that hand. After all players have finished making their decisions, the dealer then reveals his hole card and plays out his or her hand according to predetermined rules.

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